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Title: Active learning via problem-based collaborative games in a large mathematics university course in Hong Kong
Authors: Ting, FST 
Lam, WH 
Shroff, RH 
Keywords: Active learning
Collaborative learning
Concept test
Game-based learning
Problem-based learning
Student performance
Time spent
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Source: Education sciences, 2019, v. 9, no. 3, 172 How to cite?
Journal: Education sciences 
Abstract: Research has demonstrated the positive impact of active learning on students’ learning outcomes, particularly in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. However, few studies have explored the impact of active learning via problem-based collaborative games in large mathematics classes in the context of Asian tertiary education. This study assesses the effects of active learning on students’ learning outcomes using class test scores and the calculus concept inventory (CCI) to test the conceptual understanding of the basic principles of differential calculus, in a first year calculus course in Hong Kong. Three hypotheses were tested to determine the effects of game-based collaborative learning on learning mathematics among students. Active learning through a problem-based collaborative learning methodology was employed, using Kahoot!, a game-based learning platform. Results supported all three hypotheses, demonstrating a statistically significant increase in students’ conceptual understanding and examination performance, based upon their individual perceptions of active engagement and time spent in active learning. Our results indicated that active learning “levels the playing field”, in the sense that students with less pre-requisite background knowledge, using a problem-based collaborative learning methodology, were relatively more inclined to catch up or even exceed the performance of students with a stronger prerequisite background knowledge, at the end of the course.
EISSN: 2227-7102
DOI: 10.3390/educsci9030172
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Ting FST, Lam WH, Shroff RH. Active Learning via Problem-Based Collaborative Games in a Large Mathematics University Course in Hong Kong. Education Sciences. 2019; 9(3):172, is available at
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