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Title: Hierarchical factor analysis and factorial invariance of the Chinese overparenting scale
Authors: Leung, JTY 
Shek, DTL 
Keywords: Overparenting
Early adolescents
Confirmatory factor analysis
Hierarchical factor analysis
Factorial invariance
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Frontiers Research Foundation
Source: Frontiers in psychology, 14 Aug. 2019, v. 10, 1873, p. 1-17 How to cite?
Journal: Frontiers in psychology 
Abstract: Overparenting has become an emergent phenomenon, where parents intrude into the lives and directions of their children and remove any anticipated obstacles that their children may encounter. This phenomenon develops rapidly across different ages, nations and cultures. This study examined the dimensionality of the Chinese paternal/maternal overparenting scales (CPOS and CMOS) in 1,735 early adolescents (mean age = 12.63 +/- 0.78 years; 47.4% were female) in Hong Kong. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that an 8-factor model fitted the data well for both scales. The factors included close monitoring, intrusion of child's life and direction, over-emphasis on child's academic performance, frequent comparison of child's achievement with others, overscheduling of child's daily routine, anticipatory problem-solving, excessive affective response and excessive care. Hierarchical factor analyses showed that these factors could be subsumed under two second-order factors of "over-demandingness" and "over-responsiveness," which provides support for the conceptual framework of parenting. Furthermore, the hierarchical factor models of the CPOS and CMOS were invariant in adolescent boys and girls; the scales and subscales showed good internal consistency. The present findings suggest that the CPOS and CMOS showed good factorial validity and reliability that can be used to assess overparenting objectively among early adolescents in the Chinese contexts.
EISSN: 1664-1078
DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01873
Rights: Copyright © 2019 Leung and Shek. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) ( The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
The following publication Leung JTY and Shek DTL (2019) Hierarchical Factor Analysis and Factorial Invariance of the Chinese Overparenting Scale. Front. Psychol. 10:1873. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01873 is available at
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