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Title: Modulation-format-transparent IQ imbalance estimation of dual-polarization optical transmitter based on maximum likelihood independent component analysis
Authors: Zhang, Q
Yang, YF
Gu, CJ
Zhou, X 
Yao, Y
Lau, APT 
Lu, C 
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Optical Society of America
Source: Optics express, 24 June 2019, v. 27, no. 13, p. 18055-18068 How to cite?
Journal: Optics express 
Abstract: We propose and experimentally demonstrate a modulation-format-transparent dual-polarization (DP) transmitter (Tx) in-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalance estimation scheme based on maximum likelihood independent component analysis (ML-ICA). The proposed scheme can separate Tx IQ imbalance from polarization crosstalk and phase noise and achieve accurate IQ imbalance estimation without training data and the information of modulation format. Firstly, the complex-ML-ICA is used to implement format-transparent polarization de-multiplexing to remove polarization crosstalk; then the real-ML-ICA is employed to estimate inverse IQ mixing matrix and compensate Tx IQ imbalance/phase noise on each polarization channel. Inverse IQ mixing matrix contains the information of phase noise and Tx IQ imbalance; Finally, Tx IQ imbalance is derived from the inverse matrix by analytic method. The impact of Tx IQ imbalance on polarization demultiplexing and carrier phase recovery (CPE) is investigated by numerical simulation from three aspects of Jones space, Stokes space, and Kurtosis. The simulation results demonstrate the proposed scheme has strong robustness to phase noise, quantization noise, and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. The proposed ML-ICA algorithm is verified experimentally in polarization division multiplexing (PDM) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK)/8 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)/16QAM/64QAM systems. The experimental results show the scheme can accurately estimate Tx IQ imbalance within wide range in a format transparent manner.
EISSN: 1094-4087
DOI: 10.1364/OE.27.018055
Rights: © 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement (
Journal © 2019
The following publication Q. Zhang, Y. Yang, C. Guo, X. Zhou, Y. Yao, A. Lau, and C. Lu, "Modulation-format-transparent IQ imbalance estimation of dual-polarization optical transmitter based on maximum likelihood independent component analysis," Opt. Express 27, 18055-18068 (2019) is available at
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