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Title: Physical layer key generation in 5G and beyond wireless communications : challenges and opportunities
Authors: Li, G
Sun, C
Zhang, J
Jorswieck, E
Xiao, B 
Hu, A
Keywords: In-band full-duplex
IoT prototypes
Massive MIMO
MmWave communications
Physical layer security
Secret key generation
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Source: Entropy, 2019, v. 21, no. 5, 497 How to cite?
Journal: Entropy 
Abstract: The fifth generation (5G) and beyond wireless communications will transform many exciting applications and trigger massive data connections with private, confidential, and sensitive information. The security of wireless communications is conventionally established by cryptographic schemes and protocols in which the secret key distribution is one of the essential primitives. However, traditional cryptography-based key distribution protocols might be challenged in the 5G and beyond communications because of special features such as device-to-device and heterogeneous communications, and ultra-low latency requirements. Channel reciprocity-based key generation (CRKG) is an emerging physical layer-based technique to establish secret keys between devices. This article reviews CRKG when the 5G and beyond networks employ three candidate technologies: duplex modes, massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and mmWave communications. We identify the opportunities and challenges for CRKG and provide corresponding solutions. To further demonstrate the feasibility of CRKG in practical communication systems, we overview existing prototypes with different IoT protocols and examine their performance in real-world environments. This article shows the feasibility and promising performances of CRKG with the potential to be commercialized.
EISSN: 1099-4300
DOI: 10.3390/e21050497
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Li G, Sun C, Zhang J, Jorswieck E, Xiao B, Hu A. Physical Layer Key Generation in 5G and Beyond Wireless Communications: Challenges and Opportunities. Entropy. 2019; 21(5):497 is available at
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