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Title: Paternal and maternal influence on delinquency among early adolescents in Hong Kong
Authors: Shek, DTL 
Zhu, X 
Keywords: Chinese students
Junior high school
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Source: International journal of environmental research and public health, 2019, v. 16, no. 8, 1338 How to cite?
Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health 
Abstract: Objective: The aim was to examine the effects of parental behaviors and the parent-child relationship on delinquency levels as well as growth rates among early adolescents, and to explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal influence of fathers and mothers. Method: The study used and analyzed data collected at Waves 1–3 (N = 2669, age 12.56 ± 0.71 years at Wave 1) in a six-year research project. Results: While both parents’ behavioral control significantly predicted a lower initial level of delinquency, only higher behavioral control of fathers predicted a fast increase in delinquency. In contrast, parental psychological control did not serve as significant predictors in the individual growth curve model. Besides, relationships of father-child and mother-child dyads negatively predicted the initial level of delinquency but not the rate of change in adolescent delinquency. When all factors were investigated simultaneously, fathers’ behavioral control and the relationship between mother and child were robust cross-sectional predictors, whereas only the latter was a stable longitudinal predictor of adolescent delinquency. Conclusions: Parenting and the parent-child relationship are predictors of adolescent delinquency. It is necessary to differentiate between: (1) adolescent delinquency level and its change rate over time; (2) different aspects of parent-child dyadic factors; and (3) paternal and maternal factors.
ISSN: 1661-7827
EISSN: 1660-4601
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16081338
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Shek DTL, Zhu X. Paternal and Maternal Influence on Delinquency among Early Adolescents in Hong Kong. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(8):1338 is available at
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