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Title: Interaction between Higher Education Outputs and Industrial Structure Evolution : evidence from Hubei Province, China
Authors: He, D
Zheng, MX
Cheng, W
Lau, YY 
Yin, QM
Keywords: Higher education outputs
Industrial structure evolution
Human capital
Innovation outputs
Granger causality test
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International
Source: Sustainability, 2 May 2019, v. 11, no. 10, 2923, p. 1-19 How to cite?
Journal: Sustainability 
Abstract: In China, the government has made great achievements in mass higher education and intended to promote sustainable economic and social development. However, China still lacks innovation today and is trapped in its low-value-added industrial dilemma. Therefore, this paper aimed to understand how higher education outputs and industrial structure evolution affect each other by analysing evidence from Hubei, China, from 2004 to 2013. This paper quantified higher education outputs into graduate scale, education advancement, and innovation outputs and quantified industrial structure evolution into industrial structure upgrading and industrial structure rationalisation. Next, we applied the Granger causality test, vector auto-regression model, impulse response function, and variance decomposition to explore the causal relationships, response styles, and contribution rates between the indicators. The findings are as follows: (i) industrial structure upgrading and rationalisation are the Granger reasons for education advancement, and innovation outputs and graduate scale are the Granger reasons for industrial structure rationalisation; (ii) industrial structure upgrading and rationalisation can promote education advancement both quickly and significantly, however, education advancement, in turn, does not contribute to industrial structure evolution; (iii) though the contribution of innovation outputs to industrial structure rationalisation is hysteretic, it is greater than that of the graduate scale.
EISSN: 2071-1050
DOI: 10.3390/su11102923
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication He, D.; Zheng, M.; Cheng, W.; Lau, Y.-Y.; Yin, Q. Interaction between Higher Education Outputs and Industrial Structure Evolution: Evidence from Hubei Province, China. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2923, 19 pages is available at
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