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Title: Low-complexity carrier phase recovery based on principal component analysis for square-QAM modulation formats
Authors: Diniz, JCM
Fan, QR 
Ranzini, SM 
Khan, FN
Da Ros, F
Zibar, D
Lau, APT 
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Optical Society of America
Source: Optics express, 27 May 2019, v. 27, no. 11, p. 15617-15626 How to cite?
Journal: Optics express 
Abstract: We propose, numerically analyze and experimentally demonstrate a low-complexity, modulation-order independent, non-data-aided (NDA), feed-forward carrier phase recovery (CPR) algorithm. The proposed algorithm enables synchronous decoding of arbitrary square-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations and it is suitable for a realistic hardware implementation based on block-wise parallel processing. The proposed method is based on principal component analysis (PCA) and it outperforms the well-known and widely used blind phase search (BPS) algorithm at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values, showing much lower cycle slip rate (CSR) both numerically and experimentally. For operation at higher SNR values, a hybrid two-stage implementation combining the proposed method and BPS is also proposed and their performance are investigated benchmarking them against the two-stage BPS (2S-BPS). The complexity of the proposed simple and hybrid methods are evaluated against 2S-BPS and computational complexity savings of 92% and 40% are expected for the simple and hybrid methods, respectively.
EISSN: 1094-4087
DOI: 10.1364/OE.27.015617
Rights: © 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement (
The Author(s) agree that all copies of the Work made under any of the above rights shall prominently include the following copyright notice: “© 2019 Optical Society of America. Users may use, reuse, and build upon the article, or use the article for text or data mining, so long as such uses are for non-commercial purposes and appropriate attribution is maintained. All other rights are reserved.
The following publication Júlio César Medeiros Diniz, Qirui Fan, Stenio Magalhães Ranzini, Faisal Nadeem Khan, Francesco Da Ros, Darko Zibar, and Alan Pak Tao Lau, "Low-complexity carrier phase recovery based on principal component analysis for square-QAM modulation formats," Opt. Express 27, 15617-15626 (2019) is available at
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