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Title: Enhancing the competitiveness and sustainability of social enterprises in Hong Kong : a three-dimensional analysis
Authors: Leung, S
Mo, P
Ling, H
Chandra, Y 
Ho, SS
Keywords: Social enterprises
Corporate governance
Social mission
Advisory committee
Social enterprise performance
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: China journal of accounting research, June 2019, v. 12, no. 2, p. 157-176 How to cite?
Journal: China journal of accounting research 
Abstract: Running a social enterprise (SE) is more difficult than running a small or medium-sized enterprise because SEs have to achieve both economic sustainability as business enterprises and their social mission for the benefit of society. After a few years of operation, many SEs fail or struggle for survival. In this study, we examine some of the factors that affect an SE's profitability, financial management, and business planning and management. Based on in-depth interviews with 22 social enterprises in Hong Kong, we find that SEs with the dual investment objectives of social mission and financial return are more sustainable and competitive than SEs with social impact as their sole objective. Furthermore, SEs managed by non-owner managers have better financial planning and performance than those managed by owner managers. In addition, SEs with an oversight/advisory committee are more competitive and have better management practices than those without such a committee. Our findings have policy implications for government, SEs, funding bodies, and non-profit organizations to enhance and promote the development of the social enterprise sector.
ISSN: 1755-3091
EISSN: 2214-1421
DOI: 10.1016/j.cjar.2019.03.002
Rights: ©2019 Sun Yat-sen University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
The following publication Leung, S., Mo, P., Ling, H., Chandra, Y., & Ho, S. S. (2019). Enhancing the competitiveness and sustainability of social enterprises in Hong Kong : a three-dimensional analysis. China journal of accounting research, 12(2), 157-176 is available at
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