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Title: Soil lead immobilization by biochars in short-term laboratory incubation studies
Authors: Igalavithana, AD
Kwon, EE
Vithanage, M
Rinklebe, J
Moon, DH
Meers, E
Tsang, DCW 
Ok, YS
Keywords: Black carbon
CO 2 pyrolysis
Engineered biochar
Soil stabilization
Waste valorization/recycling
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Source: Environment international, 2019, p. 190-198 How to cite?
Journal: Environment international 
Abstract: Exchangeable lead (Pb) extracted by ammonium acetate from three independent incubation studies was assessed to understand the influence of feedstock, pyrolysis temperatures, and production conditions on Pb immobilization capacities of different biochars. Vegetable waste biochar, pine cone, wood bark, cocopeat, red pepper stalk, and palm kernel shell were used as feedstocks (food supply and agricultural wastes) to produce biochars at 200–650 °C with and without N 2 /CO 2 . Biochars were applied at 5 and 2.5% (w w −1 ) to a Pb contaminated (i.e., 1445 mg kg −1 ) agricultural soil collected near an old mine. Lead immobilization in biochar treated soils at the end of incubation period was normalized per gram of biochar applied. Biochar produced from vegetable waste at 500 °C showed the highest Pb immobilization (87%) and highest total exchangeable cations (13.5 cmol (+) kg −1 ) at the end of the 45 d incubation period. However, on the basis of Pb immobilization per gram of biochar, red pepper stalk biochar produced in CO 2 at 650 °C was the best in Pb immobilization (0.09 mg kg −1 g −1 biochar) compared to the other biochars. The enhanced ability to immobilize Pb by biochar produced in CO 2 could be due to the presence of siloxanes (–]Si–]O–]Si–]) on biochar surface. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that alkaline pH, ash%, and N% of biochars influence in Pb immobilization and exchangeable cation availability in soil. Biochar production atmosphere considerably change its properties that influence Pb immobilization. Further studies are needed on the modification of properties and Pb immobilization by biochars produced from various feedstocks in CO 2 .
ISSN: 0160-4120
DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.03.031
Rights: © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
The following publication Igalavithana, A. D., Kwon, E. E., Vithanage, M., Rinklebe, J., Moon, D. H., Meers, E., ... & Ok, Y. S. (2019). Soil lead immobilization by biochars in short-term laboratory incubation studies. Environment International, 127, 190-198. is available at
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