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Title: Modulation format identification assisted by sparse-fast-Fourier-transform for hitless flexible coherent transceivers
Authors: Lu, JN 
Tan, ZW 
Lau, APT 
Fu, SN
Tang, M
Lu, C 
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Optical Society of America
Source: Optics express, 4 Mar. 2019, v. 27, no. 5, p. 7072-7086 How to cite?
Journal: Optics express 
Abstract: For hitless flexible coherent transceivers based next-generation agile optical network, efficient modulation format identification (MFI) is an essential element in digital signal processing (DSP) flow at the receiver-side (Rx). In this paper, we propose a blind and fast MFI scheme with high identification accuracy at low optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) regime. This is achieved by first raising the signal to the 4th power and calculate the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the corresponding spectra to distinguish 32 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) from quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), 16 and 64QAM signals. Then, followed by iterative partition schemes to remove signals with phase +/-pi/4, +/- 3 pi/4 (or QPSK-like phases) based on the signal amplitudes, the PAPR of the remaining signals is calculated to distinguish the other three formats. Additionally, by frequency offset (FO) pre-compensation, the spectrum can be obtained using sparse-fast-Fourier-transform (S-FFT), which greatly reduces the total complexity. The MFI performance is numerically and experimentally investigated by 28 Gbaud dual-polarization (DP) coherent optical back-to-back (B2B) and up to 1500 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission system using QPSK, 16QAM, 32QAM, and 64QAM. Results show that high identification accuracy can be achieved, even when OSNR is lower than that required for the 20% forward error correction (FEC) threshold of BER=2x10(-2) for each format. Furthermore, fast format switching between 64QAM-32QAM and 32QAM-16QAM are demonstrated experimentally for B2B scenario and 900 km SSMF with the proposed MFI technique, respectively.
EISSN: 1094-4087
DOI: 10.1364/OE.27.007072
Rights: © 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement (
The following publication Jianing Lu, Zhongwei Tan, Alan Pak Tao Lau, Songnian Fu, Ming Tang, and Chao Lu, "Modulation format identification assisted by sparse-fast-Fourier-transform for hitless flexible coherent transceivers," Opt. Express 27, 7072-7086 (2019) is available at
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