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Title: Do you care for robots that care? Exploring the opinions of vocational care students on the use of healthcare robots
Authors: van Kemenade, MAM
Hoorn, JF 
Konijn, EA
Keywords: Healthcare robots
Vocational care students
Use intentions
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Source: Robotics, 21 Mar. 2019, v. 8, no. 1, 22, p. 1-12 How to cite?
Journal: Robotics 
Abstract: Background: There has been a rapid increase in the population of senior citizens in many countries. The shortage of caregivers is becoming a pressing concern. Robots are being deployed in an attempt to fill this gap and reduce the workload of caregivers. This study explores how healthcare robots are perceived by trainee care professionals.
Methods: A total of 2365 students at different vocational levels completed a questionnaire, rating ethical statements regarding beneficence, maleficence, justice, autonomy, utility, and use intentions with regard to three different types of robots (assistive, monitoring, and companion) along with six control variables: gender, age, school year, technical skills, interest in technology, and enjoying working with computers. The scores were analyzed by MANOVA statistics.
Results: In relation to our research questions: All students viewed companion robots as more beneficent than monitoring and assistive robots. Level of education did not lead to any differences in appraisal. Participants rated maleficence lowest and the highest scores were given to autonomy and utility, meaning a positive evaluation of the use of healthcare robots. Surprisingly, all students rated use intentions low, indicating a poor motivation to actually use a robot in the future, although participants stated a firmer intention for using monitoring devices.
Conclusion: Care students find robots useful and expect clients to benefit from them, but still are hesitant to use robots in their future practice. This study suggests that it would be wise to enrich the curriculum of intermediate care education with practical classes on the use and ethical implications of care robots, to ensure that this group of trainee care professionals fully understand the possibilities and potential downside of this emerging kind of healthcare technology.
EISSN: 2218-6581
DOI: 10.3390/robotics8010022
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication van Kemenade, M.A.M.; Hoorn, J.F.; Konijn, E.A. Do You Care for Robots That Care? Exploring the Opinions of Vocational Care Students on the Use of Healthcare Robots. Robotics 2019, 8, 22, 12 pages is available at
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