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Title: Translation and initial validation of the Chinese version of the action research arm test in people with stroke
Authors: Zhao, JL
Chen, PM 
Li, WF
Bian, RH
Ding, MH
Li, H
Lin, Q
Xu, ZQ
Mao, YR
Huang, DF
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Source: BioMed research international, 2019, v. 2019, 5416560 How to cite?
Journal: BioMed research international 
Abstract: Purpose. This study aimed to translate the English version of the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) into Chinese and to evaluate the initial validation of the Chinese version (C-ARAT) in patients with a first stroke.
Methods. An expert group translated the original ARAT from English into Chinese using a forward-backward procedure. Forty-four patients (36 men and 8 women) aged 22-80 years with a first stroke were enrolled in this study. The participants were evaluated using 3 stroke-specific outcome measures: C-ARAT, the upper extremity section of the Fugl-Meyer assessment (UE-FMA), and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Internal consistency was analysed using Cronbach's α coefficients and item-scale correlations. Concurrent validity was determined using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Floor and ceiling effects were considered to be present when more than 20% of patients fell outside the preliminarily set lower or upper boundary, respectively.
Results. The C-ARAT items yielded excellent internal consistency, with a Cronbach's α of 0.98 (p < 0.001) and item-total correlations ranging from 0.727 to 0.948 (p < 0.001). The C-ARAT exhibited good-to-excellent correlations with the UE-FMA and WMFT functional ability (WMFT-FA) scores, with respective ρ values of 0.824 and 0.852 (p < 0.001), and an excellent negative correlation with the WMFT performance time (WMFT-time), with a ρ value of-0.940 (p < 0.001). The C-ARAT subscales generally exhibited good-to-excellent correlations with stroke-specific assessments, with ρ values ranging from 0.773 to 0.927 (p < 0.001). However, the gross subscale exhibited moderate-to-good correlations with the UE-FMA and WMFT-FA scores, with respective ρ values of 0.665 and 0.720 (p < 0.001). No significant floor effect was observed, and a significant ceiling effect was observed only on the WMFT-time.
Conclusions. The C-ARAT demonstrated excellent internal consistency and good-to-excellent concurrent validity. This test could be used to evaluate upper extremity function in stroke patients without cognitive impairment.
ISSN: 2314-6133
EISSN: 2314-6141
DOI: 10.1155/2019/5416560
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