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Title: Translation and initial validation of the Chinese version of the action research arm test in people with stroke
Authors: Zhao, JL
Chen, PM 
Li, WF
Bian, RH
Ding, MH
Li, H
Lin, Q
Xu, ZQ
Mao, YR
Huang, DF
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Source: BioMed research international, 2019, v. 2019, 5416560 How to cite?
Journal: BioMed research international 
Abstract: Purpose. This study aimed to translate the English version of the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) into Chinese and to evaluate the initial validation of the Chinese version (C-ARAT) in patients with a first stroke.
Methods. An expert group translated the original ARAT from English into Chinese using a forward-backward procedure. Forty-four patients (36 men and 8 women) aged 22-80 years with a first stroke were enrolled in this study. The participants were evaluated using 3 stroke-specific outcome measures: C-ARAT, the upper extremity section of the Fugl-Meyer assessment (UE-FMA), and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Internal consistency was analysed using Cronbach's α coefficients and item-scale correlations. Concurrent validity was determined using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Floor and ceiling effects were considered to be present when more than 20% of patients fell outside the preliminarily set lower or upper boundary, respectively.
Results. The C-ARAT items yielded excellent internal consistency, with a Cronbach's α of 0.98 (p < 0.001) and item-total correlations ranging from 0.727 to 0.948 (p < 0.001). The C-ARAT exhibited good-to-excellent correlations with the UE-FMA and WMFT functional ability (WMFT-FA) scores, with respective ρ values of 0.824 and 0.852 (p < 0.001), and an excellent negative correlation with the WMFT performance time (WMFT-time), with a ρ value of-0.940 (p < 0.001). The C-ARAT subscales generally exhibited good-to-excellent correlations with stroke-specific assessments, with ρ values ranging from 0.773 to 0.927 (p < 0.001). However, the gross subscale exhibited moderate-to-good correlations with the UE-FMA and WMFT-FA scores, with respective ρ values of 0.665 and 0.720 (p < 0.001). No significant floor effect was observed, and a significant ceiling effect was observed only on the WMFT-time.
Conclusions. The C-ARAT demonstrated excellent internal consistency and good-to-excellent concurrent validity. This test could be used to evaluate upper extremity function in stroke patients without cognitive impairment.
ISSN: 2314-6133
EISSN: 2314-6141
DOI: 10.1155/2019/5416560
Rights: Copyright © 2019 Jiang-Li Zhao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The following publication Jiang-Li Zhao, Pei-Ming Chen, Wen-Feng Li, et al., “Translation and Initial Validation of the Chinese Version of the Action Research Arm Test in People with Stroke,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2019, Article ID 5416560, 9 pages, 2019 is available at
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