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Title: Evaluation of design flow rate ofwater supply systems with low flow showering appliances
Authors: Zhou, Y 
Mui, KW 
Wong, LT 
Keywords: Design flow rate
Energy efficiency
Low flow showering
Monte Carlo simulation
Water supply system
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Source: Water, 2019, v. 11, no. 1, 100 How to cite?
Journal: Water 
Abstract: The installation of water efficient appliances is an efficient demand-side water management measure favored by policymakers and water providers nowadays. The adoption of low flow showerheads in large and complex plumbing systems will not only contribute to a great reduction of shower water use in the whole water system, but also further influence the water supply system design. Hence, it is necessary to justify the redesign of existing water supply systems (such as the pipe size, storage tank volume, pumping arrangement etc.) in terms of the use of low flow showerheads. This study uses Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the design flow rate for a typical high-rise roof tank water supply system in Hong Kong with the installation of low flow showerheads. The simulation results indicate that a full installation of low flow showerheads can decrease the design flow rate by 15%, corresponding to an energy efficiency improvement of 1.5%. The potential for water savings and associated energy savings can be significantly higher when all installed appliances in homes are water efficient (e.g., showerheads, water taps, washing machines). Further work is required to evaluate the redesign of existing water supply systems for a sustainable future.
ISSN: 2073-4441
DOI: 10.3390/w11010100
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Zhou Y, Mui K-W, Wong L-T. Evaluation of Design Flow Rate of Water Supply Systems with Low Flow Showering Appliances. Water. 2019; 11(1):100 is available at
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