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Title: Bovine tuberculosis in eastern Ethiopia : prevalence, risk factors and its public health importance
Authors: Kemal, J
Sibhat, B
Abraham, A
Terefe, Y
Tulu, KT 
Welay, K
Getahun, N
Keywords: Bovine tuberculosis
CIDT test
Eastern Ethiopia
Public health
Risk factors
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: BioMed Central
Source: BMC infectious diseases, 40179 2019, v. 19, 39, p. 1-9 How to cite?
Journal: BMC infectious diseases 
Abstract: Background: Bovine tuberculosis is among the primary zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis which has significant impact on the health of livestock and human. It has been significantly a cause for great economic loss in animal production.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2014 to June 2016 on 315 cattle in selected areas of eastern Ethiopia, aiming to estimate the occurrence of bovine tuberculosis using comparative intradermal tuberculin skin test and assess cattle owners' awareness on its public health implication. Random sampling method was applied in order to select animals from farm/household and associated risk factors were recorded before purified protein derivative (PPD) injection. Forty three farm/household owners of tuberculin tested animals were interviewed using pre-tested structured questionnaires.
Results: The overall prevalence of bovine tuberculosis was 20.3% (n=64) in dairy cattle at recommended cut off >4mm. From a total of 43 farms/households tested, 22 were positive; each farm exhibited at least one tuberculin positive reactor animal with a total herd level prevalence of 51.2%. The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in individual animal level was significantly different (2=45.2; P-value=0.000) in different sites with a higher prevalence (50%) in Dire Dawa. Farming system, herd size and other risk factors were significantly (p<0.05) associated with bovine tuberculosis occurrence. Of the total interviewed farm owners, only 33% had the knowledge of or had heard about bovine tuberculosis and 23% respondents were aware of the zoonotic importance of the disease. More than 50% of the interviewees had shown their preference of raw milk consumption. Out of the total interviewed households, 3 (7%) farm workers had TB cases that had direct contact with the animals.
Conclusion: The study showed bovine tuberculosis is highly prevalent. Associated risk factors contributed to the prevalence of the disease in cattle and its transmission. Moreover, the majority of cattle owners lack awareness about the disease and its public health significance. Awareness rising about the disease, its transmission and zoonotic implication is of great importance for reduction and control measures. Evidence of tuberculosis patient farm attendants calls also for further detail investigation.
EISSN: 1471-2334
DOI: 10.1186/s12879-018-3628-1
Rights: © The Author(s). 2019 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
The following publication Kemal, J., Sibhat, B., Abraham, A., Terefe, Y., Tulu, K. T., Welay, K., & Getahun, N. (2019). Bovine tuberculosis in eastern Ethiopia: prevalence, risk factors and its public health importance. BMC Infectious Diseases, 19, 39, 1-9 is available at
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