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Title: Backpackers’ perceived risks towards smartphone usage and risk reduction strategies : a mixed methods study
Authors: Dayour, F
Park, S 
Kimbu, AN
Keywords: Backpackers
Mixed methods
Perceived risk
Risk reduction
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Source: Tourism management, 2019, v. 72, p. 52-68 How to cite?
Journal: Tourism management 
Abstract: Backpackers’ travel ideology and experiences are increasingly being mediated by mobile phones (i.e. smartphones). This study explored their risk perceptions towards smartphone usage and consequent risk reduction strategies. Importantly, this paper proposes an integrated model of perceived risk combining technology and destination related risk factors. Employing a quantitative-dominant concurrent nested mixed methods approach, 567 surveys (Study A) and 15 in depth, semi-structured interviews (Study B) were conducted in Ghana. Evidently, backpackers’ perceived risk towards smartphone usage is a function of both information technology and destination related risks. Their risk concerns are inhibited by trust in smartphones, innovativeness and familiarity. Levels of trust had a significant positive impact on their intentions to reuse the device, as did their satisfaction levels with the device and travel. Backpackers used a mix of both cognitive and non-cognitive measures to manage their risk perceptions. The theoretical, practical and methodological contributions of the study are discussed.
ISSN: 0261-5177
EISSN: 1879-3193
DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2018.11.003
Rights: © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
The following publication: Dayour, F., Park, S., & Kimbu, A. N. (2019). Backpackers’ perceived risks towards smartphone usage and risk reduction strategies: A mixed methods study. Tourism Management, 72, 52-68 is available at
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