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Title: The street air warming phenomenon in a high-rise compact city
Authors: Wang, XX
Li, YG
Yang, XY
Chan, PW
Nichol, J 
Li, QL
Keywords: Vehicle traverse experiments
Street air temperature
Air temperature model
Street warming
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Source: Atmosphere, Oct. 2018, v. 9, no. 10, 402, p. 1-26 How to cite?
Journal: Atmosphere 
Abstract: The street thermal environment is important for thermal comfort, urban climate and pollutant dispersion. A 24-h vehicle traverse study was conducted over the Kowloon Peninsula of Hong Kong in summer, with each measurement period consisting of 2-3 full days. The data covered a total of 158 loops in 198 h along the route on sunny days. The measured data were averaged by three methods (direct average, FFT filter and interpolated by the piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation). The average street air temperatures were found to be 1-3 degrees C higher than those recorded at nearby fixed weather stations. The street warming phenomenon observed in the study has substantial implications as usually urban heat island (UHI) intensity is estimated from measurement at fixed weather stations, and therefore the UHI intensity in the built areas of the city may have been underestimated. This significant difference is of interest for studies on outdoor air temperature, thermal comfort, urban environment and pollutant dispersion. The differences were simulated by an improved one-dimensional temperature model (ZERO-CAT) using different urban morphology parameters. The model can correct the underestimation of street air temperature. Further sensitivity studies show that the building arrangement in the daytime and nighttime plays different roles for air temperature in the street. City designers can choose different parameters based on their purpose.
ISSN: 2073-4433
DOI: 10.3390/atmos9100402
Rights: © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Wang, X.X., Li, Y.G., Yang, X.Y., Chan, P.W., Nichol, J., & Li, Q.L. (2018). The street air warming phenomenon in a high-rise compact city. Atmosphere, 9 (10), 402, p. 1-26 is available at
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