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Title: Risk factors of chronic kidney diseases in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes
Authors: Yang, L 
Chu, TK
Lian, JX 
Lo, CW
Lau, PK 
Nan, HR 
Liang, J
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Source: Scientific reports, Oct. 2018, v. 8, 14686, p. 1-8 How to cite?
Journal: Scientific reportsonline only 
Abstract: In this study we conducted a cross sectional study to comprehensively evaluated the risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a large sample of Chinese adults under primary care for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated the risk factors associated with the prevalence of CKD in adults with T2DM, who were enrolled in the Risk Factor Assessment and Management Programme for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) of Hong Kong from July 2014 to June 2017. We collected the individual data of 31,574 subjects, with mean age of 63.0 (+/- 10.8) years and mean DM duration of 7.4 (+/- 6.4) years. Of them 9,386 (29.7%) had CKD and 7,452 (23.6%) had micro- or macro-albuminuria. After adjustment for multiple demographic and lifestyle confounders, we identified several modifiable risk factors associated with higher rate of CKD: obesity (OR = 1.54), current smoking (OR =1.33), higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 1.01), dyslipidemia (OR = 1.32 and 0.61 for trig lycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)), hyperglycemia (OR = 1.11 for HbA(1c)), diabetic retinopathy (OR = 1.36 and 2.60 for non-sight and sight threatening retinopathy), and stroke (OR =1.43). The risk factors of lower dialytic blood pressure and coronary heart disease were identified only in men, whereas peripheral arterial disease only in women. In conclusion, several modifiable and gender specific risk factors were significantly associated with higher prevalence of CKD in Chinese adults with T2DM. The high-risk populations identified in this study shall receive regular screening for renal functions to achieve better patient management in primary care settings.
EISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-32983-1
Rights: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit© The Author(s) 2018
The following publication Yang, L., Chu, T.K., Lian, J.X., Lo, C.W., Lau, P.K., Nan, H.R., & Liang, J. (2018). Risk factors of chronic kidney diseases in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes. Scientific reports, 8, 14686, 1-8 is available at
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