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Title: Characteristics of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) code observations for different receiver types and their influence on wide-lane ambiguity resolution
Authors: Lu, YW 
Wang, ZJ
Ji, SY
Chen, W 
Weng, DJ 
Keywords: BDS
Melbourne-Wubbena (MW) combination
Ambiguity resolution
Different receiver types
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Source: Sensors, Oct. 2018, v. 18, no. 10, 3546, p. 1-23 How to cite?
Journal: Sensorsonline only 
Abstract: The Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been an important constitute of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the combination of GPS and BDS shows significant improvements when compared with single GPS system for real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning, and improves on availability and fixing rates, especially in the East Asian area. While network RTK might have different types of receivers, both for global and regional networks, different types of receiver may adopt different internal multipath mitigation methods and other techniques that result in different pseudorange characteristics, especially for a multipath. Then, the performance of wide-lane ambiguity resolution (WL AR) is affected. In this study, we first analyze and compare the characteristics of BDS dual-frequency observations for different types of receivers, including Trimble, Leica, Javad, and Septentrio, based on multipath (MP) observables, and then we assess their influence on double-differenced (DD) WL AR. The numerical results show that an obvious low-frequency component exists in MP observables of BDS geostationary earth-orbit satellites (GEOs) for Leica receivers, while its high-frequency measurement noise is very small. For geosynchronous orbit satellites (IGSOs) and medium earth-orbit satellites (MEOs), a slight fluctuation can also be observed that is similar to that of GPS satellites, except for the satellite-included code bias. In Trimble, Javad, and Septentrio receivers, the MP series are dominated by high-frequency measurement noise, both for GEOs and non-GEOs, except for satellite-included code bias. Furthermore, the characteristic of Leica receivers for BDS GEOs seriously affects WL AR and, even for a short baseline, it takes a long time for WL ambiguities to converge, or not converge for many GEO-related DD WL ambiguities, while Trimble, Javad, and Septentrio receivers perform well for short and medium baselines. Then, a time-difference method is proposed to mitigate the multipath of BDS GEOs for a Leica receiver. After applying the proposed method, WL ambiguity fixing rates of GEO-related satellite pairs are improved significantly and the convergence time is shortened from several hours to ten minutes.
EISSN: 1424-8220
DOI: 10.3390/s18103546
Rights: © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Lu, Y.W., Wang, Z.J., Ji, S.Y., Chen, W., & Weng, D.J. (2018). Characteristics of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) code observations for different receiver types and their influence on wide-lane ambiguity resolution. Sensors, 18 (10), 3546, p. 1-23 is available at
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