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Title: Upstream-downstream joint carbon reduction strategies based on low-carbon promotion
Authors: Xia, X
Ruan J 
Juan, Z
Shi, Y
Wang, X
Chan, FTS 
Keywords: Carbon reduction
Differential game model
Low-carbon promotion
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Source: International journal of environmental research and public health, 2018, v. 15, no. 7, 1351, p. 1-16 How to cite?
Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health 
Abstract: A differential game model is established to analyze the impact of emissions reduction efforts and low-carbon product promotion on the reduction strategies of low-carbon product manufacturers (subsequently referred to as manufacturers) and the retailers of such products in a dynamic environment. Based on this model, changes in emissions reduction efforts and promotional efforts are comparatively analyzed under three scenarios (retailers bearing the promotional cost, manufacturers bearing the promotional cost, and centralized decision-making). The results are as follows: (1) the trajectory of carbon emissions reduction per product unit is the highest when the supply chain is under centralized decision-making, followed by when manufacturers bear the promotional cost, and lastly when retailers bear the cost; (2) when manufacturers bear the promotional cost, the market demand, emissions reduction effort, and promotional effort are higher, although the unit retail price is higher than when retailers bear the promotional cost; and * under centralized decision-making, the unit retail price is the lowest; however, sales volume, the emissions reduction effort, and the promotional effort are all higher than those in the other scenarios.
ISSN: 1661-7827
EISSN: 1660-4601
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15071351
Rights: © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Xia, X., Ruan, J., Juan, Z., Shi, Y., Wang, X., & Chan, F. T. S. (2018). Upstream-downstream joint carbon reduction strategies based on low-carbon promotion. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(7), 1351, 1-16 is available at
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