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Title: Performance analysis of GPS/BDS dual/triple-frequency network RTK in urban areas : a case study in Hong Kong
Authors: Xu, Y
Chen, W 
Keywords: Ambiguity successfully fixed rate
Network RTK
Urban areas
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Source: Sensors (Switzerland), 2018, v. 18, no. 8, 2437, p. 1-19 How to cite?
Journal: Sensors (Switzerland) 
Abstract: Network Real Time Kinematic (NRTK) positioning with instantaneous ambiguity resolution (AR) is currently one of the most popular techniques for real-time precise positioning using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) carrier phase observations. Although NRTK has been successfully applied in many fields in surveying and navigation, the initialization speed, accuracy, and ambiguity successfully fixed rate of NRTK in urban areas (Hong Kong, for instance) would be significantly affected by blocked satellite signals. To address these problems and analyze the performance of GPS/BDS dual/triple-frequency NRTK in urban areas, we developed a new Hong Kong GNSS Network RTK Service Platform. Based on this platform, the performance of NRTK in urban areas was examined through a series of experiments. The results showed that: (1) The initialization time of the NRTK varied with the number of the visible satellite and the quality of the observation. (2) Centimeter-level NRTK service could be provided for users over Hong Kong using the Hong Kong GNSS Network RTK Service Platform. * In urban areas, GPS/BDS NRTK services for static, walking, and driving users significantly improved the ambiguity successfully fixed rate of the NRTK service when compared with that using the GPS signal alone. The NRTK ambiguity successfully fixed rate in Hong Kong was better than 99% in good environment. In typical urban environment, the RTK ambiguity successfully fixed rate with GPS/BDS was 33.4–72.4%, which was about 12.7–32.4% with GPS only. (4) BDS triple-frequency observation improved the initialization speed and positioning accuracy of RTK in Hong Kong.
ISSN: 1424-8220
DOI: 10.3390/s18082437
Rights: © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Xu, Y., & Chen, W. (2018). Performance analysis of GPS/BDS dual/triple-frequency network RTK in urban areas: A case study in Hong Kong. Sensors (Switzerland), 18(8), 2437, 1-19 is available at
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