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Title: Multi-port zero-current switching switched-capacitor converters for battery management applications
Authors: Fong, YC 
Cheng KWE 
Raman SR 
Wang, X 
Keywords: Battery management system (BMS)
Energy storage system
Switched-capacitor (SC)
Voltage balance
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Source: Energies, 2018, v. 11, no. 8, 1934, p. 1-17 How to cite?
Journal: Energies 
Abstract: A novel implementation of multi-port zero-current switching (ZCS) switched-capacitor (SC) converters for battery management applications is presented. In addition to the auto-balancing feature offered by the SC technique, the proposed SC converter permits individual control of the charging or discharging current of the series-connected energy storage elements, such as the battery or super-capacitor cells. This approach enables advanced state control and accelerates the equalizing process by coordinated operation with the battery management system (BMS) and an adjustable voltage source, which can be implemented by a DC-DC converter interfaced to the energy storage string. Different configurations, including the single-input multi-output (SIMO), multi-input single-output (MISO) SC converters, and the corresponding altered circuits for string-to-cells, cells-to-string, as well as cells-to-cells equalizers, are discussed with a circuit analysis and derivation of the associated mathematical representation. The simulation study and experimental results indicated a significant increase in the balancing speed with the presence of BMS and closed-loop control of cell currents.
EISSN: 1996-1073
DOI: 10.3390/en11081934
Rights: © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Fong, Y. C., Cheng, K. W. E., Raman, S. R., & Wang, X. (2018). Multi-port zero-current switching switched-capacitor converters for battery management applications. Energies, 11(8), 1934, 1-17 is available at
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