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Title: Anomalous twin boundaries in two dimensional materials
Authors: Rooney, AP
Li, Z
Zhao, W
Gholinia, A
Kozikov, A
Auton, G
Ding, F
Gorbachev, RV
Young, RJ
Haigh, SJ
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Source: Nature communications, 2018, v. 9, no. 1, 3597, p. 1-7 How to cite?
Journal: Nature communications 
Abstract: Twin boundary defects form in virtually all crystalline materials as part of their response to applied deformation or thermal stress. For nearly six decades, graphite has been used as a textbook example of twinning with illustrations showing atomically sharp interfaces between parent and twin. Using state-of-the-art high-resolution annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, we have captured atomic resolution images of graphitic twin boundaries and find that these interfaces are far more complex than previously supposed. Density functional theory calculations confirm that the presence of van der Waals bonding eliminates the requirement for an atomically sharp interface, resulting in long-range bending across multiple unit cells. We show these remarkable structures are common to other van der Waals materials, leading to extraordinary microstructures, Raman-active stacking faults, and sub-surface exfoliation within bulk crystals.
EISSN: 2041-1723
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-06074-8
Rights: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
© The Author(s) 2018
The following publication Rooney, A. P., Li, Z., Zhao, W., Gholinia, A., Kozikov, A., Auton, G., . . . Haigh, S. J. (2018). Anomalous twin boundaries in two dimensional materials. Nature Communications, 9, 3597, 1-7 is available at
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