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Title: Psychometric evaluation of persian nomophobia questionnaire : differential item functioning and measurement invariance across gender
Authors: Lin, CY 
Griffiths, MD
Pakpour, AH
Keywords: Mobile phone addiction
Mobile phone dependence
Smartphone addiction
Smartphone dependence
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Akademiai Kiado Rt
Source: Journal of behavioral addictions, Mar. 2018, v. 7, no. 1, p. 100-108 How to cite?
Journal: Journal of behavioral addictions 
Abstract: Background and aims: Research examining problematic mobile phone use has increased markedly over the past 5 years and has been related to "no mobile phone phobia" (so-called nomophobia). The 20-item Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) is the only instrument that assesses nomophobia with an underlying theoretical structure and robust psychometric testing. This study aimed to confirm the construct validity of the Persian NMP-Q using Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models.
Methods: After ensuring the linguistic validity, Rasch models were used to examine the unidimensionality of each Persian NMP-Q factor among 3,216 Iranian adolescents and CFAs were used to confirm its four-factor structure. Differential item functioning (DIF) and multigroup CFA were used to examine whether males and females interpreted the NMP-Q similarly, including item content and NMP-Q structure.
Results: Each factor was unidimensional according to the Rach findings, and the four-factor structure was supported by CFA. Two items did not quite fit the Rasch models (Item 14: "I would be nervous because I could not know if someone had tried to get a hold of me;" Item 9: "If I could not check my smartphone for a while, I would feel a desire to check it "). No DIF items were found across gender and measurement invariance was supported in multigroup CFA across gender.
Conclusions: Due to the satisfactory psychometric properties, it is concluded that the Persian NMP-Q can be used to assess nomophobia among adolescents. Moreover, NMP-Q users may compare its scores between genders in the knowledge that there are no score differences contributed by different understandings of NMP-Q items.
ISSN: 2062-5871
EISSN: 2063-5303
DOI: 10.1556/2006.7.2018.11
Rights: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.
The following publication Lin, C. Y., Griffiths, M. D., & Pakpour, A. H. (2018). Psychometric evaluation of persian nomophobia questionnaire : differential item functioning and measurement invariance across gender. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(1), 100-108 is available at
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