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Title: Evolution of joint cooperation under phenotypic variations
Authors: Wu, T 
Wang, L
Lee, J 
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Source: Scientific reports, 7 Mar. 2018, v. 8, 4137, p. 1-10 How to cite?
Journal: Scientific reports 
Abstract: Effects of phenotypic variation on the species-environment systems and the evolution of cooperation under prescribed phenotypic diversity have been well addressed respectively. Interspecies interactions in the context of evolvable phenotypic diversity remain largely unconsidered. We address the evolutionary dynamics by considering evolvable phenotypic variations under group interactions. Each individual carries a capacitor of phenotypes and pays a cost proportional to its volume. A random phenotype from the capacitor is expressed and the population is thus divided into subpopulations. Group interactions happen in each of these subpopulations, respectively. Competition is global. Results show that phenotypic diversity coevolves with cooperation under a wide range of conditions and that tradeoff between expanding capacitor and rising cost leads to an optimal level of phenotypic diversity best promoting cooperation. We also find that evolved high levels of phenotypic diversity can occasionally collapse due to the invasion of defector mutants, suggesting that cooperation and phenotypic diversity can mutually reinforce each other.
EISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-22477-5
Rights: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
© The Author(s) 2018
The following publication Wu, T., Wang, L., & Lee, J. (2018). Evolution of joint cooperation under phenotypic variations. Scientific Reports, 8, 4137, 1-10 is available at
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