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Title: Towards lane-level traffic monitoring in urban environment using precise probe vehicle data derived from three-dimensional map aided differential GNSS
Authors: Gu, Y
Hsu, LT 
Kamijo, S
Keywords: Probe data
Differential GNSS
3D building map
Vehicle localization
Stop detection
Lane-change detection
Issue Date: Dec-2018
Publisher: Elsevier on behalf of International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences
Source: IATSS research, Dec. 2018, v. 42, no. 4, p. 248-258 How to cite?
Journal: IATSS research 
Abstract: Today's urban road transport systems experience increasing congestion that threatens the environment and transport efficiency. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based vehicle probe technology has been proposed as an effective means for monitoring the traffic situation and can be used for future city development. More specifically, lane-level traffic analysis is expected to provide an effective solution for traffic control. However, GNSS positioning technologies suffer from multipath and Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) propagations in urban environments. The multipath and NLOS propagations severely degrade the accuracy of probe vehicle data. Recently, a three-dimensional (3D) city map became available on the market. We propose to use the 3D building map and differential correction information to simulate the reflecting path of satellite signal transmission and improve the results of the commercial GNSS single-frequency receiver, technically named 3D map-aided Differential GNSS (3D-DGNSS). In this paper, the innovative 3D-DGNSS is employed for the acquisition of precise probe vehicle data. In addition, this paper also utilizes accelerometer-based lane change detection to improve the positioning accuracy of probe vehicle data. By benefitting from the proposed method, the lane-level position, vehicle speed, and stop state of vehicles were estimated. Finally, a series of experiments and evaluations were conducted on probe data collected in one of the most challenging urban cities, Tokyo. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a correct lane localization rate of 87% and achieves sub-meter accuracy with respect to the position and speed error means. The accurate positioning data provided by the 3D-DGNSS result in a correct detection rate of the stop state of vehicles of 92%.
ISSN: 0386-1112
EISSN: 2210-4240
DOI: 10.1016/j.iatssr.2018.03.001
Rights: © 2018 International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
The following publication Gu, Y., Hsu, L. T., & Kamijo, S. (2018). Towards lane-level traffic monitoring in urban environment using precise probe vehicle data derived from three-dimensional map aided differential GNSS. IATSS Research, 42(4), 248-258 is available at
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