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Title: Subclinical decrease in central inner retinal activity is associated with myopia development in children
Authors: Li, SZC 
Yu, WY 
Choi, KY 
Lam, CHI 
Lakshmanan, Y 
Wong, FSY 
Chan, HHL 
Keywords: Myopia development
Multifocal electroretinogram
Children vision
Inner retina
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
Source: Investigative ophthalmology and visual science, 2017, v. 58, no. 10, p. 4399-4406 How to cite?
Journal: Investigative ophthalmology and visual science 
Abstract: PURPOSE. To investigate the characteristics of retinal electrophysiological activity in relation to early myopia development in children.
METHODS. Fifty-six children aged 6 to 9 years with emmetropic refractive error (defined as > -0.5 diopter [D] and <= +0.5 D) were recruited. Cycloplegic refraction, axial length, and global flash multifocal electroretinogram (MOFO mfERG) at 49% and 96% contrast levels were recorded in all children at their first visit. The refraction and axial length measurements were repeated after 1 year. The amplitudes and implicit times of the direct component (DC) and the induced component (IC) of the MOFO mfERG obtained at the initial visit were analyzed. Correlations between the MOFO mfERG parameters and changes in refractive error and axial length were investigated.
RESULTS. The mean spherical equivalent refractive error and axial length of the eyes of the children at the first visit were +0.19 +/- 0.33 D and 23.14 +/- 0.6 mm, respectively. After 1 year, the mean refractive error increased by -0.55 +/- 0.53 D, whereas axial length increased by 0.37 +/- 0.22 mm. The changes in refractive error and axial length were significantly correlated with the central IC amplitudes at 49% contrast level measured at the initial visit (rho = 0.46, P < 0.001 and rho = -0.34, P = 0.01, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS. The prospective changes we have shown are believed to derive from central inner retina. These changes appear to precede myopia and could be a potential reference for juvenile myopia development.
ISSN: 0146-0404
EISSN: 1552-5783
DOI: 10.1167/iovs.16-21279
Rights: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The following article: Serena Zhe-Chuang Li, Wing-Yan Yu, Kai-Yip Choi, Christie Hang-I Lam, Yamunadevi Lakshmanan, Francisca Siu-Yin Wong, Henry Ho-Lung Chan; Subclinical Decrease in Central Inner Retinal Activity Is Associated With Myopia Development in Children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(10):4399-4406 is available at https//
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