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Title: Elevation extraction and deformation monitoring by multitemporal InSAR of Lupu Bridge in Shanghai
Authors: Zhao, JW 
Wu, JC
Ding, XL 
Wang, MZ
Keywords: Deformation monitoring
Elevation extraction
LLL lattice reduction
Long-short baseline iteration
Lupu Bridge
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Source: Remote sensing, 2017, v. 9, no. 9, 897 How to cite?
Journal: Remote sensing 
Abstract: Monitoring, assessing, and understanding the structural health of large infrastructures, such as buildings, bridges, dams, tunnels, and highways, is important for urban development and management, as the gradual deterioration of such structures may result in catastrophic structural failure leading to high personal and economic losses. With a higher spatial resolution and a shorter revisit period, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) plays an increasing role in the deformation monitoring and height extraction of structures. As a focal point of the InSAR data processing chain, phase unwrapping has a direct impact on the accuracy of the results. In complex urban areas, large elevation differences between the top and bottom parts of a large structure combined with a long interferometric baseline can result in a serious phase-wrapping problem. Here, with no accurate digital surface model (DSM) available, we handle the large phase gradients of arcs in multitemporal InSAR processing using a long-short baseline iteration method. Specifically, groups of interferometric pairs with short baselines are processed to obtain the rough initial elevation estimations of the persistent scatterers (PSs). The baseline threshold is then loosened in subsequent iterations to improve the accuracy of the elevation estimates step by step. The LLL lattice reduction algorithm (by Lenstra, Lenstra, and Lovasz) is applied in the InSAR phase unwrapping process to rapidly reduce the search radius, compress the search space, and improve the success rate in resolving the phase ambiguities. Once the elevations of the selected PSs are determined, they are used in the following two-dimensional phase regression involving both elevations and deformations. A case study of Lupu Bridge in Shanghai is carried out for the algorithm's verification. The estimated PS elevations agree well (within 1 m) with the official Lupu Bridge model data, while the PS deformation time series confirms that the bridge exhibits some symmetric progressive deformation, at 4-7 mm per year on both arches and 4-9 mm per year on the bridge deck during the SAR image acquisition period.
ISSN: 2072-4292
EISSN: 2072-4292
DOI: 10.3390/rs9090897
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