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Title: Long-term O-3-precursor relationships in Hong Kong : field observation and model simulation
Authors: Wang, Y 
Wang, H 
Guo, H 
Lyu, XP 
Cheng, HR
Ling, ZH
Louie, PKK
Simpson, IJ
Meinardi, S
Blake, DR
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
Source: Atmospheric chemistry and physics, 2017, v. 17, no. 18, p. 10919-10935 How to cite?
Journal: Atmospheric chemistry and physics 
Abstract: Over the past 10 years (2005-2014), ground-level O-3 in Hong Kong has consistently increased in all seasons except winter, despite the yearly reduction of its precursors, i.e. nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO). To explain the contradictory phenomena, an observation-based box model (OBM) coupled with CB05 mechanism was applied in order to understand the influence of both locally produced O-3 and regional transport. The simulation of locally produced O-3 showed an increasing trend in spring, a decreasing trend in autumn, and no changes in summer and winter. The O-3 increase in spring was caused by the net effect of more rapid decrease in NO titration and unchanged TVOC reactivity despite decreased TVOC mixing ratios, while the decreased local O-3 formation in autumn was mainly due to the reduction of aromatic VOC mixing ratios and the TVOC reactivity and much slower decrease in NO titration. However, the decreased in situ O-3 formation in autumn was overridden by the regional contribution, resulting in elevated O-3 observations. Furthermore, the OBM-derived relative incremental reactivity indicated that the O-3 formation was VOC-limited in all seasons, and that the long-term O-3 formation was more sensitive to VOCs and less to NOx and CO in the past 10 years. In addition, the OBM results found that the contributions of aromatics to O-3 formation decreased in all seasons of these years, particularly in autumn, probably due to the effective control of solvent-related sources. In contrast, the contributions of alkenes increased, suggesting a continuing need to reduce traffic emissions. The findings provide updated information on photochemical pollution and its impact in Hong Kong.
ISSN: 1680-7316
EISSN: 1680-7324
DOI: 10.5194/acp-17-10919-2017
Rights: © Author(s) 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The following publication: Wang, Y., Wang, H., Guo, H., Lyu, X., Cheng, H., Ling, Z., Louie, P. K. K., Simpson, I. J., Meinardi, S., and Blake, D. R.: Long-term O3–precursor relationships in Hong Kong: field observation and model simulation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10919-10935 is available at, 2017.
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