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Title: Modeling co-infection of Ixodes tick-borne pathogens
Authors: Lou, YJ 
Liu, L
Gao, DZ
Keywords: Co-infection
Tick-borne pathogens
Mathematical model
Issue Date: Oct-2017
Publisher: American Institute of Mathematical Sciences
Source: Mathematical biosciences and engineering, 2017, v. 14, no. 5-6, p. 1301-1316 How to cite?
Journal: Mathematical biosciences and engineering 
Abstract: Ticks, including the Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis hard tick species, are regarded as the most common arthropod vectors of both human and animal diseases in Europe and the United States capable of transmitting a large number of bacteria, viruses and parasites. Since ticks in larval and nymphal stages share the same host community which can harbor multiple pathogens, they may be co-infected with two or more pathogens, with a sub-sequent high likelihood of co-transmission to humans or animals. This paper is devoted to the modeling of co-infection of tick-borne pathogens, with special focus on the co-infection of Borrelia burgdorferi (agent of Lyme disease) and Babe siamicroti (agent of human babesiosis). Considering the effect of co-infection, we illustrate that co-infection with B.burgdorferi increases the likelihood of B. microti transmission, by increasing the basic reproduction number of B. microti below the threshold smaller than one to be possibly above the threshold for persistence. The study con firms a mechanism of the ecological fitness paradox, the establishment of B. microti which has weak fitness (basic reproduction number less than one). Furthermore, co-infection could facilitate range expansion of both pathogens.
ISSN: 1547-1063
EISSN: 1551-0018
DOI: 10.3934/mbe.2017067
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