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Title: Anti-phase synchronization of influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 in Hong Kong and countries in the North Temperate Zone
Authors: Chiu, APY 
Lin, Q 
Tang, EYN
He, D 
Keywords: Anti-phase synchronization
Influenza A
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Source: International journal of infectious diseases, 2018, v. 66, p. 42-44 How to cite?
Journal: International journal of infectious diseases 
Abstract: Objectives Influenza affects 10% of the global population annually. Hong Kong is a subtropical city close to the North Temperate Zone (NTZ). Influenza-associated mortality rates in Hong Kong were 27.53, 79.55, 36.94, and 48.72 per one million person-years in 2014, 2015, 2016, and January to July 2017, respectively. The aim of this study was to explore the temporal patterns of influenza A subtypes in both Hong Kong and the NTZ. Methods Weekly reported cases of influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 from January 2010 to July 2017 were downloaded from the Centre for Health Protection in Hong Kong and FluNet (provided by the World Health Organization). The spatio-temporal patterns of A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 in Hong Kong and the NTZ were explored. Anti-phase synchronization between A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 is indicated by a high for A/H1N1 coinciding with a low for A/H3N2, and vice versa. Results Anti-phase synchronization was evident in both Hong Kong and the NTZ. It was found that A/H3N2 clearly dominated in the 2011/2012, 2014/2015, and 2016/2017 influenza seasons. Conclusions These results are novel in identifying anti-phase synchronization in influenza A subtypes in Hong Kong and the NTZ. These findings should inform public health preparedness for future epidemics of A/H3N2, which are typically more severe than those of A/H1N1.
ISSN: 1201-9712
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2017.11.006
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