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Title: Human cancer risk estimation for 1,3-butadiene : an assessment of personal exposure and different microenvironments
Authors: Huy, LN 
Lee, SC 
Zhang, Z 
Keywords: 1,3-Butadiene
Lifetime cancer risk
Personal exposure
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Science of the total environment, 2018, v. 616-617, p. 1599-1611 How to cite?
Journal: Science of the total environment 
Abstract: This study estimated the lifetime cancer risk (LCR) attributable to 1,3-butadiene (BD) personal exposure and to other microenvironments, including residential home, outdoor, in-office, in-vehicle, and dining. Detailed life expectancy by country (WHO), inhalation rate and body weight by gender reported by USEPA were used for the calculation, focusing on adult population (25≤Age&ltMergeCell65). LCR estimation of the adult population due to personal exposure exceeded the USEPA benchmark of 1×10-6 in many cities. For outdoor BD exposure, LCR estimations in 45 out of 175 cities/sites (sharing 26%) exceeded the USEPA benchmark. Out of the top 20 cities having high LCR estimations, developing countries contributed 19 cities, including 14, 3, 1, 1 cities in China, India, Chile, and Pakistan. One city in the United States was in the list due to the nearby industrial facilities. The LCR calculations for BD levels found in residential home, in-vehicle and dining microenvironments also exceeded 1×10-6 in some cities, while LCR caused by in-office BD levels had the smallest risk. Four cities/regions were used for investigating source distributions to total LCR results because of their sufficient BD data. Home exposure contributed significantly to total LCR value (ranging 56% to 86%), followed by in-vehicle (4% to 38%) and dining (4 to 7%). Outdoor microenvironment shared highly in Tianjin with 6%, whereas in-office contributed from 2-3% for all cities. High LCR estimations found in developing countries highlighted the greater cancer risk caused by BD in other cities without available measurement data.
ISSN: 0048-9697
EISSN: 1879-1026
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.152
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