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Title: Investigating the impact of random and systematic errors on gps precise point positioning ambiguity resolution
Authors: Han, JH
Liu, Z 
Kwon, JH
Keywords: Ambiguity resolution (AR)
Global positioning system (GPS)
Precise Point Positioning (PPP)
Random and systematic errors
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Korean Society of Surveying
Source: Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying Geodesy Photogrammetry and Cartography, 2014, v. 32, no. 3, p. 233-244 How to cite?
Journal: Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying Geodesy Photogrammetry and Cartography 
Abstract: Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is an increasingly recognized precisely the GPS/GNSS positioning technique. In order to improve the accuracy of PPP, the error sources in PPP measurements should be reduced as much as possible and the ambiguities should be correctly resolved. The correct ambiguity resolution requires a careful control of residual errors that are normally categorized into random and systematic errors. To understand effects from two categorized errors on the PPP ambiguity resolution, those two GPS datasets are simulated by generating in locations in South Korea (denoted as SUWN) and Hong Kong (PolyU). Both simulation cases are studied for each dataset; the first case is that all the satellites are affected by systematic and random errors, and the second case is that only a few satellites are affected. In the first case with random errors only, when the magnitude of random errors is increased, L1 ambiguities have a much higher chance to be incorrectly fxed. However, the size of ambiguity error is not exactly proportional to the magnitude of random error. Satellite geometry has more impacts on the L1 ambiguity resolution than the magnitude of random errors. In the first case when all the satellites have both random and systematic errors, the accuracy of fixed ambiguities is considerably affected by the systematic error. A pseudorange systematic error of 5 cm is the much more detrimental to ambiguity resolutions than carrier phase systematic error of 2 mm. In the 2nd case when only a portion of satellites have systematic and random errors, the L1 ambiguity resolution in PPP can be still corrected. The number of allowable satellites varies from stations to stations, depending on the geometry of satellites. Through extensive simulation tests under different schemes, this paper sheds light on how the PPP ambiguity resolution (more precisely L1 ambiguity resolution) is affected by the characteristics of the residual errors in PPP observations. The numerical examples recall the PPP data analysts that how accurate the error correction models must achieve in order to get all the ambiguities resolved correctly.
ISSN: 1598-4850 (print)
2288-260X (online)
Rights: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The following publication Han, J. -., Liu, Z., & Kwon, J. H. (2014). Investigating the impact of random and systematic errors on GPS precise point positioning ambiguity resolution. Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying Geodesy Photogrammetry and Cartography, 32(3), 233-244 is available at
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