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Title: Encoding emotion in Chinese : a database of Chinese emotion words with information of emotion type, intensity, and valence
Authors: Lin, J
Yao, Y 
Keywords: Chinese emotion words
Emotion type
Emotion intensity
Language variation
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Springer
Source: Lingua sinica, 2016, v. 2, no. 6, 6, p. 1-22 How to cite?
Journal: Lingua sinica 
Abstract: Despite the increasing interest in emotion and sentiment analysis in Chinese text, the field lacks reliable, normative ratings of the emotional content and valence of Chinese emotion words. This paper reports the first large-scale survey of average language users’ judgment of perceived emotion type (e.g., anger, happiness), emotional intensity, and valence (e.g., positive, negative) of Chinese emotion words. The results of the survey reveal significant differences from previously proposed Chinese emotion lexicons, which mostly relied on a few researchers’ judgment or automatic annotation. Furthermore, the current study also explores the issue of lexical variation across different Chinese varieties with a comparison of emotion word perception by Chinese speakers from three different areas (Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Singapore). The emotion lexicons constructed in the current study will serve as an important reference for future research on emotion and language, including (but not limited to) topics related to sentiment detection and analysis, perception of affective language, and cross-regional lexical and semantic variation in Chinese.
EISSN: 2197-6678
DOI: 10.1186/s40655-016-0015-y
Rights: © 2016 The Author(s). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, andindicate if changes were made.
The following publication Lin, J., & Yao, Y. (2016). Encoding emotion in Chinese : a database of Chinese emotion words with information of emotion type, intensity, and valence. Lingua Sinica, 2(6), 6, 1-22 is available at
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