Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/6995
Title: Characterization and source apportionment of atmospheric organic and elemental carbon during fall and winter of 2003 in Xi'an, China
Authors: Cao, JJ
Wu, F
Chow, JC
Lee, SC 
Li, Y
Chen, SW
An, ZS
Fung, KK
Watson, JG
Zhu, CS
Liu, SX
Keywords: Air sampling
Atmospheric pollution
Organic carbon
Particulate matter
Pollutant source
Issue Date: 22-Nov-2005
Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
Source: Atmospheric chemistry and physics, 22 Nov. 2005, v. 5, no. 11, p. 3127-3137 How to cite?
Journal: Atmospheric chemistry and physics 
Abstract: Continuous measurements of atmospheric organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were taken during the high-pollution fall and winter seasons at Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China from September 2003 through February 2004. Battery-powered mini-volume samplers collected PM ₂̦₅ samples daily and PM ₁₀ samples every third day. Samples were also obtained from the plumes of residential coal combustion, motor-vehicle exhaust, and biomass burning sources. These samples were analyzed for OC/EC by thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) following the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) protocol. OC and EC levels at Xi'an are higher than most urban cities in Asia. Average PM ₂̦₅ OC concentrations in fall and winter were 34.1±18.0 μg m ⁻³ and 61.9±;33.2 μg m ⁻³, respectively; while EC concentrations were 11.3±6.9 μg m ⁻³ and 12.3±5.3 μg m ⁻³, respectively. Most of the OC and EC were in the PM₂̦₅ fraction. OC was strongly correlated (R>0.95) with EC in the autumn and moderately correlated (R=0.81) with EC during winter. Carbonaceous aerosol (OC×1.6+EC) accounted for 48.8%±10.1% of the PM₂̦₅ mass during fall and 45.9±7.5% during winter. The average OC/EC ratio was 3.3 in fall and 5.1 in winter, with individual OC/EC ratios nearly always exceeding 2.0. The higher wintertime OC/EC corresponded to increased residential coal combustion for heating. Total carbon (TC) was associated with source contributions using absolute principal component analysis (APCA) with eight thermally-derived carbon fractions. During fall, 73% of TC was attributed to gasoline engine exhaust, 23% to diesel exhaust, and 4% to biomass burning. During winter, 44% of TC was attributed to gasoline engine exhaust, 44% to coal burning, 9% to biomass burning, and 3% to diesel engine exhaust.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/6995
ISSN: 1680-7316
EISSN: 1680-7324
DOI: 10.5194/acp-5-3127-2005
Rights: © 2005 Author(s). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License.
Appears in Collections:Journal/Magazine Article

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Cao_characterization_source_apportionment.pdf611.46 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Access
View full-text via PolyU eLinks SFX Query
Show full item record

SCOPUSTM   
Citations

272
Last Week
1
Last month
7
Citations as of Aug 17, 2017

WEB OF SCIENCETM
Citations

211
Last Week
0
Last month
4
Citations as of Aug 20, 2017

Page view(s)

94
Last Week
0
Last month
Checked on Aug 20, 2017

Download(s)

29
Checked on Aug 20, 2017

Google ScholarTM

Check

Altmetric



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.