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Title: Aeroacoustics of T-junction merging flow
Authors: Lam, GCY
Leung, RCK 
Tang, SK 
Issue Date: Feb-2013
Source: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Feb. 2013, v. 133, no. 2, p. 697-708
Abstract: This paper reports a numerical study of the aeroacoustics of merging flow at T-junction. The primary focus is to elucidate the acoustic generation by the flow unsteadiness. The study is conducted by performing direct aeroacoustic simulation approach, which solves the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations and the perfect gas equation of state simultaneously using the conservation element and solution element method. For practical flows, the Reynolds number based on duct width is usually quite high (>10⁵). In order to properly account for the effects of flow turbulence, a large eddy simulation methodology together with a wall modeling derived from the classical logarithm wall law is adopted. The numerical simulations are performed in two dimensions and the acoustic generation physics at different ratios of side-branch to main duct flow velocities VR (=0.5,0.67,1.0,2.0) are studied. Both the levels of unsteady interactions of merging flow structures and the efficiency of acoustic generation are observed to increase with VR. Based on Curle's analogy, the major acoustic source is found to be the fluctuating wall pressure induced by the flow unsteadiness occurred in the downstream branch. A scaling between the wall fluctuating force and the efficiency of the acoustic generation is also derived.
Keywords: Aeroacoustics
Navier Stokes equations
Reynolds number
Publisher: Acoustical Society of America
Journal: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 
ISSN: 0001-4966
EISSN: 1520-8524
DOI: 10.1121/1.4773351
Rights: Copyright 2013 Acoustical Society of America. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the Acoustical Society of America.
The following article appeared in Lam, G. C. Y., Leung, R. C. K., & Tang, S. K. (2013). Aeroacoustics of T-junction merging flow. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 133(2), 697-708 and may be found at
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