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Title: Nonstoichiometric acid-base reaction as reliable synthetic route to highly stable CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite film
Authors: Long, M
Zhang, T
Chai, Y 
Ng, CF
Mak, TCW
Xu, J
Yan, K
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Source: Nature communications, 2016, v. 7, 13503 How to cite?
Journal: Nature communications 
Abstract: Perovskite solar cells have received worldwide interests due to swiftly improved efficiency but the poor stability of the perovskite component hampers the device fabrication under normal condition. Herein, we develop a reliable nonstoichiometric acid-base reaction route to stable perovskite films by intermediate chemistry and technology. Perovskite thin-film prepared by nonstoichiometric acid-base reaction route is stable for two months with negligible PbI 2 -impurity under 1/465% humidity, whereas other perovskites prepared by traditional methods degrade distinctly after 2 weeks. Route optimization involves the reaction of PbI 2 with excess HI to generate HPbI 3, which subsequently undergoes reaction with excess CH 3 NH 2 to deliver CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 thin films. High quality of intermediate HPbI 3 and CH 3 NH 2 abundance are two important factors to stable CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite. Excess volatile acid/base not only affords full conversion in nonstoichiometric acid-base reaction route but also permits its facile removal for stoichiometric purification, resulting in average efficiency of 16.1% in forward/reverse scans.
EISSN: 2041-1723
DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13503
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