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Title: Freehand three-dimensional ultrasound system for assessment of scoliosis
Authors: Cheung, CWJ
Zhou, GQ
Law, SY
Lai, KL
Jiang, WW
Zheng, YP 
Keywords: Cobb angle
Freehand 3-D ultrasound
Spine deformity
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Journal of orthopaedic translation, 2015, v. 3, no. 3, p. 123-133 How to cite?
Journal: Journal of orthopaedic translation 
Abstract: Background/Objective: Standing radiograph with Cobb's method is routinely used to diagnose scoliosis, a medical condition defined as a lateral spine curvature > 10° with concordant vertebral rotation. However, radiation hazard and two-dimensional (2-D) viewing of 3-D anatomy restrict the application of radiograph in scoliosis examination.
Methods: In this study, a freehand 3-D ultrasound system was developed for the radiation-free assessment of scoliosis. Bony landmarks of the spine were manually extracted from a series of ultrasound images with their spatial information recorded to form a 3-D spine model for measuring its curvature. To validate its feasibility, invivo measurements were conducted in 28 volunteers (age: 28.0±13.0 years, 9 males and 19 females). A significant linear correlation (R2=0.86; p<0.001) was found between the spine curvatures as measured by Cobb's method and the 3-D ultrasound imaging with transverse process and superior articular process as landmarks. The intra- and interobserver tests indicated that the proposed method is repeatable.
Results: The 3-D ultrasound method using bony landmarks tended to underestimate the deformity, and a proper scaling is required. Nevertheless, this study demonstrated the feasibility of the freehand 3-D ultrasound system to assess scoliosis in the standing posture with the proposed methods and 3-D spine profile.
Conclusion: Further studies are required to understand the variations that exist between the ultrasound and radiograph results with a larger number of volunteers, and to demonstrate its potential clinical applications for monitoring of scoliosis patients. Through further clinical trials and development, the reported 3-D ultrasound imaging system can potentially be used for scoliosis mass screening and frequent monitoring of progress and treatment outcome because of its radiation-free and easy accessibility feature.
ISSN: 2214-031X
DOI: 10.1016/
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