Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: Improving the accuracy of energy baseline models for commercial buildings with occupancy data
Authors: Liang, X
Hong, T
Shen, GQ 
Keywords: Baseline model
Building energy use
Energy efficiency retrofit
Measurement and verification
Issue Date: 1-Oct-2016
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Source: Applied energy, 1 Oct. 2016, v. 179, p. 247-260 How to cite?
Journal: Applied energy 
Abstract: More than 80% of energy is consumed during operation phase of a building's life cycle, so energy efficiency retrofit for existing buildings is considered a promising way to reduce energy use in buildings. The investment strategies of retrofit depend on the ability to quantify energy savings by “measurement and verification” (M&V), which compares actual energy consumption to how much energy would have been used without retrofit (called the “baseline” of energy use). Although numerous models exist for predicting baseline of energy use, a critical limitation is that occupancy has not been included as a variable. However, occupancy rate is essential for energy consumption and was emphasized by previous studies. This study develops a new baseline model which is built upon the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) model but includes the use of building occupancy data. The study also proposes metrics to quantify the accuracy of prediction and the impacts of variables. However, the results show that including occupancy data does not significantly improve the accuracy of the baseline model, especially for HVAC load. The reasons are discussed further. In addition, sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the influence of parameters in baseline models. The results from this study can help us understand the influence of occupancy on energy use, improve energy baseline prediction by including the occupancy factor, reduce risks of M&V and facilitate investment strategies of energy efficiency retrofit.
ISSN: 0306-2619
EISSN: 1872-9118
DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.06.141
Rights: © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Applied Energy. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. The definitive version Liang X., Hong T., & Shen G.Q. (2016). Improving the accuracy of energy baseline models for commercial buildings with occupancy data. Applied Energy, 179 (2016), 247-260 is available at
Appears in Collections:Journal/Magazine Article

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Liang_Xin_2016a.pdfPre-Published version3.33 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
View full-text via PolyU eLinks SFX Query
Show full item record
PIRA download icon_1.1View/Download Contents


Last Week
Last month
Citations as of Nov 27, 2018


Last Week
Last month
Citations as of Dec 9, 2018

Page view(s)

Last Week
Last month
Citations as of Dec 3, 2018


Citations as of Dec 3, 2018

Google ScholarTM



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.