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Title: A lease based hybrid design pattern for proper-temporal-embedding of wireless CPS interlocking
Authors: Tan, F
Wang, Y
Wang, Q 
Bu, L
Suri, N
Keywords: Automata
Base stations
Wireless communication
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Source: IEEE transactions on parallel and distributed systems, 2015, v. 26, no. 10, 6898840, p. 2630-2642 How to cite?
Journal: IEEE transactions on parallel and distributed systems 
Abstract: Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) integrate discrete-Time computing and continuous-Time physical-world entities, which are often wirelessly interlinked. The use of wireless safety-critical CPS requires safety guarantees despite communication faults. This paper focuses on one important set of such safety rules: Proper-Temporal-Embedding (PTE), where distributed CPS entities must enter/leave risky states according to properly nested temporal pattern and certain duration spacing. Our solution introduces hybrid automata to formally describe and analyze CPS design patterns. We propose a novel leasing based design pattern, along with closed-form configuration constraints, to guarantee PTE safety rules under arbitrary wireless communication faults. We propose a formal procedure to transform the design pattern hybrid automata into specific wireless CPS designs. This procedure can effectively isolate physical world parameters from affecting the PTE safety of the resultant specific designs. We conduct two wireless CPS case studies, one on medicine and the other on control, to show that the resulted system is safe against communication failures. We also compare our approach with a polling based approach. Both approaches support PTE under arbitrary communication failures. The polling approach performs better under severely adverse wireless medium conditions; while ours performs better under benign or moderately adverse wireless medium conditions.
ISSN: 1045-9219
EISSN: 1558-2183
DOI: 10.1109/TPDS.2014.2358224
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