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Title: Negative-index gratings formed by femtosecond laser overexposure and thermal regeneration
Authors: He, J
Wang, Y
Liao, C
Wang, C
Liu, S
Yang, K
Wang, Y
Yuan, X
Wang, GP
Zhang, W
Issue Date: 2016
Source: Scientific reports, 16 2016, v. 6, no. , p. 1-9
Abstract: We demonstrate a method for the preparation of negative-index fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) using 800 nm femtosecond laser overexposure and thermal regeneration. A positive-index type I-IR FBG was first inscribed in H2-free single-mode fibre using a femtosecond laser directed through a phase mask, and then a highly polarization dependant phase-shifted FBG (P-PSFBG) was fabricated from the type I-IR FBG by overexposure to the femtosecond laser. Subsequently, the P-PSFBG was thermally annealed at 800 °C for 12 hours. Grating regeneration was observed during thermal annealing, and a negative-index FBG was finally obtained with a high reflectivity of 99.22%, an ultra-low insertion loss of 0.08 dB, a blueshift of 0.83 nm in the Bragg wavelength, and an operating temperature of up to 1000 °C for more than 10 hours. Further annealing tests showed that the thermal stability of the negative-index FBG was lower than that of a type II-IR FBG, but much higher than that of a type I-IR FBG. Moreover, the formation of such a negative-index grating may result from thermally regenerated type IIA photosensitivity.
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Journal: Scientific reports 
EISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/srep23379
Rights: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit
The following publication He, J. et al. Negative-index gratings formed by femtosecond laser overexposure and thermal regeneration. Sci. Rep. 6, 23379 (2016) is available at
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