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Title: Modeling flows over gravel beds by a body force method
Authors: Zeng, C
Li, CW 
Keywords: Open-channel flows
RANS modeling
Turbulent flows
Gravel beds
Body force method
Issue Date: Jun-2011
Publisher: American Institute of Physics
Source: AIP conference proceedings, June 2011, v. 1376, p. 417-420 How to cite?
Abstract: A Reynolds‐averaged Navier‐stokes equations (RANS) model using the body force method (BFM) has been developed to simulate open‐channel flows over gravel beds. The momentum equation is modified by introducing the form drag as an extra body force term to represent the gravel‐bed resistance. By applying the body force within the roughness layer of the flow over small‐scale roughness, it is found that the body force coefficient frk varies inversely with the roughness length scale ks. The method is robust, not sensitive to mesh resolution and is easily extended to deal with large scale roughness.
ISBN: 978-0-7354-0936-1
ISSN: 0094-243x (print)
DOI: 10.1063/1.3651934
Rights: © 2011 American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in Y. Bai, C. Zeng & C. W. Li, AIP Conf. Proc. 1376, 417-420 (2011) and may be found at
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