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Title: Adapting a main-stream internet switch architecture for multihop real-time industrial networks
Authors: Wang, Q 
Gopalakrishnan, S
Keywords: Cyber-physical systems (CPSs)
Industrial control
Issue Date: Aug-2010
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Source: IEEE transactions on industrial informatics, Aug. 2010, v. 6, no. 3, p. 393-404 How to cite?
Journal: IEEE transactions on industrial informatics 
Abstract: As real-time industrial control systems scale up, single real-time local area network (LAN) is no longer sufficient; instead, we need real-time switches to merge many real-time LANs into real-time wide area networks (WANs). However, nowadays commercially-off-the-shelf WAN switches are designed for best-effort Internet traffic rather than real-time traffic. To address this problem, we propose a real-time crossbar switch design that minimally modifies, and even simplifies the de facto industrial standard switch design of iSLIP. Specifically, we change the iSLIP request-grant-accept negotiation to deterministic grant. The switch runs periodically with an M cell-time clock-period. Every input port runs per-flow queueing, and every output port deterministically grants input port per-flow queues according to its own M cell-time clock-period schedule. The schedules are created offline. We prove that the global scheduling can be reduced to a preemptive open shop scheduling problem; as long as every input/output needs to send/fetch no more than M cells per M cell-time clock-period, all outputs schedules do not conflict; and the scheduling algorithm takes O(N4) time (N is the number of input/output ports). Such design serves real-time periodic/aperiodic traffic in a time-division multiple-access (TDMA) fashion. This simplifies analysis, provides isolation, and results in a close-form end-to-end delay bound. We implemented the proposed real-time switch using Xilinx field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and built a distributed control test bed upon the switched networks. Using the test bed, we carried out experiments to compare the implemented real-time switches and iSLIP switches. The results prove the necessity of using real-time switches for real-time industrial control.
ISSN: 1551-3203
EISSN: 1941-0050
DOI: 10.1109/TII.2010.2051557
Rights: © 2010 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
The following publication Wang, Q., & Gopalakrishnan, S. (2010). Adapting a main-stream internet switch architecture for multihop real-time industrial networks. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 6(3), 393-404 is available at
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