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Title: Closed-loop-controlled vortex shedding and vibration of a flexibly supported square cylinder under different schemes
Authors: Zhang, MM
Cheng, L 
Zhou, Y
Keywords: Flow control
Three-term control
Drag reduction
Flow visualisation
Closed loop systems
Issue Date: May-2004
Publisher: American Institute of Physics
Source: Physics of fluids, May 2004, v. 16, no. 5, p. 1439-1448 How to cite?
Journal: Physics of fluids 
Abstract: Different schemes were experimentally investigated of the closed-loop control of vortex shedding from a spring-supported square cylinder in cross flow. The control action was implemented through the perturbation of one cylinder surface, which was generated by three piezoelectric ceramic actuators, embedded underneath the surface and controlled by a proportional-integral-derivative controller. Three control schemes were investigated using different feedback signals, including the turbulent flow signal measured by a hot wire, flow-induced structural oscillation signal obtained by a laser vibrometer, and a combination of both signals. An investigation was conducted at the resonance condition, when the vortex-shedding frequency coincided with the natural frequency of the fluid-structure system. The flow and structural vibration were measured using particle image velocimetry, laser-induced fluorescence flow visualization, a laser Doppler anemometer, and a laser vibrometer. It was observed that the control scheme based on the feedback of both flow and structural oscillation led to the almost complete destruction of the Kármán vortex street and a reduction in the structural vibration, vortex shedding strength, and drag coefficient by 82%, 65%, and 35%, respectively, outperforming by far an open-loop control as well as the other two closed-loop schemes.
ISSN: 1070-6631 (print)
1089-7666 (online)
DOI: 10.1063/1.1687413
Rights: © 2004 American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in M. M. Zhang, L. Cheng & Y. Zhou, Physics of Fluids 16, 1439 (2004) and may be found at
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