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Title: Integrated terahertz graphene modulator with 100% modulation depth
Authors: Liang, G
Hu, X
Yu, X
Shen, Y
Li, LH
Davies, AG
Linfield, EH
Liang, HK
Zhang, Y
Yu, SF 
Wang, QJ
Keywords: 100 percent modulation depth
Integrated photonics
Quantum cascade laser
Terahertz modulator
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Source: ACS photonics, 2015, v. 2, no. 11, p. 1559-1566 How to cite?
Journal: ACS photonics 
Abstract: Terahertz (THz) frequency technology has many potential applications in nondestructive imaging, spectroscopic sensing, and high-bit-rate free-space communications, with an optical modulator being a key component. However, it has proved challenging to achieve high-speed modulation with a high modulation depth across a broad bandwidth of THz frequencies. Here, we demonstrate that a monolithically integrated graphene modulator can efficiently modulate the light intensity of the THz radiation from a THz quantum cascade laser with a 100% modulation depth for certain region of the pumping current, as a result of the strongly enhanced interaction between the laser field and the graphene enabled by this integration scheme. Moreover, the small area of the resulting device in comparison to existing THz modulators enables a faster modulation speed, greater than 100 MHz, which can be further improved through optimized designs of the laser cavity and modulator architectures. Furthermore, as the graphene absorption spectrum is broadband in nature, our integration scheme can be readily scaled to other wavelength regions, such as the mid-infrared, and applied to a broad range of other optoelectronic devices.
ISSN: 2330-4022
DOI: 10.1021/acsphotonics.5b00317
Rights: © 2015 American Chemical Society. This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.
The following publication Liang, G., Hu, X., Yu, X., Shen, Y., Li, L. H., Davies, A. G., ... & Wang, Q. J. (2015). Integrated terahertz graphene modulator with 100% modulation depth. ACS photonics, 2(11), 1559-1566 is available at
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