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Title: Spontaneous recovery of hydrogen-degraded TiO₂ ceramic capacitors
Authors: Chen, WP
Wang, Y 
Dai, J 
Lu, SG
Wang, XX
Lee, PF
Chan, HLW 
Choy, CL 
Keywords: Titanium compounds
Ceramic capacitors
Electrochemical electrodes
Fourier transform spectra
Infrared spectra
Issue Date: 5-Jan-2004
Publisher: American Institute of Physics
Source: Applied physics letters, 5 Jan. 2004, v. 84, no. 1, p. 103-105 How to cite?
Journal: Applied physics letters 
Abstract: Degradation of TiO₂-based ceramic capacitors was observed after hydrogen incorporation on the termination electrodes of the capacitors via electrolysis of water. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra analysis of polished rutile single crystals clearly showed that hydrogen was incorporated into the TiO₂ lattice through the treatment. Hydrogen reduces Ti[sup 4+] to Ti[sup 3+] and increases the concentration of charge carriers. The degradation was found to exhibit a strong dependence on time at room temperature. The degraded properties were spontaneously recovered through an aging process, showing a spontaneous recovery unique to TiO₂-based ceramic capacitors. It is proposed that hydrogen is metastable in TiO₂ and that hydrogen-induced degradation has different stabilities among various oxide-based components and devices.
ISSN: 0003-6951
EISSN: 1077-3118
Rights: © 2004 American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in W.P. Chen et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 103 (2004) and may be found at
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