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Title: Thermal assisted oxygen annealing for high efficiency planar CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite solar cells
Authors: Ren, ZW
Ng, A
Shen, Q
Gokkaya, HC
Wang, JC
Yang, LJ
Yiu, WK
Bai, GX
Djurisic, AB
Leung, WWF 
Hao, JH 
Chan, WK
Surya, C 
Issue Date: 2014
Source: Scientific reports, 24 2014, v. 4, no. , p. 1-6
Abstract: We report investigations on the influences of post-deposition treatments on the performance of solution-processed methylammonium lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3)-based planar solar cells. The prepared films were stored in pure N-2 at room temperature or annealed in pure O-2 at room temperature, 45 degrees C, 65 degrees C and 85 degrees C for 12 hours prior to the deposition of the metal electrodes. It is found that annealing in O-2 leads to substantial increase in the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of the devices. Furthermore, strong dependence on the annealing temperature for the PCEs of the devices suggests that a thermally activated process may underlie the observed phenomenon. It is believed that the annealing process may facilitate the diffusion of O-2 into the spiro-MeOTAD for inducing p-doping of the hole transport material. Furthermore, the process can result in lowering the localized state density at the grain boundaries as well as the bulk of perovskite. Utilizing thermal assisted O-2 annealing, high efficiency devices with good reproducibility were attained. A PCE of 15.4% with an open circuit voltage (V-OC) 1.04 V, short circuit current density (J(SC)) 23 mA/cm(2), and fill factor 0.64 had been achieved for our champion device.
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Journal: Scientific reports 
EISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/srep06752
Rights: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder in order to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit
The following publication Ren, Z., Ng, A., Shen, Q. et al. Thermal Assisted Oxygen Annealing for High Efficiency Planar CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells. Sci Rep 4, 6752 (2015) is available at
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