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Title: Stable ferromagnetism in p-type carbon-doped ZnO nanoneedles
Authors: Herng, TS
Lau, SP 
Wei, C
Wang, L
Zhao, BC
Tanemura, M
Akaike, Y
Keywords: Annealing
Ferromagnetic materials
Hall effect
Hole density
II-VI semiconductors
Magnetic moments
Magnetic semiconductors
Nanostructured materials
Semiconductor quantum wires
Spin-orbit interactions
Wide band gap semiconductors
Zinc compounds
Issue Date: 28-Sep-2009
Publisher: American Institute of Physics
Source: Applied physics letters, 28 Sept. 2009, v. 95, no. 13, 133103, p. 1-3 How to cite?
Journal: Applied physics letters 
Abstract: The authors report the synthesis and magnetic properties of carbon-doped ZnO (ZnO:C) nanoneedles. A saturated magnetic moment of 2.16 emu/cm³ was found in the ZnO:C nanoneedles. The samples showed anomalous Hall effect and p-type conduction with a hole concentration of 1.8 X 10¹⁸cm⁻³. The ferromagnetism in the ZnO:C nanoneedles could be attributed to C substitution on the O site which introduces hole, so the p-p interaction leads to the strong spin interaction between the C atoms and carriers. It was found that the ferromagnetism and p-type conduction in the ZnO:C nanoneedles were stable in ambient air over a period of 1 year and annealing temperature of up to 100 °C.
ISSN: 0003-6951 (print)
1077-3118 (online)
DOI: 10.1063/1.3238289
Rights: © 2009 American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in T.S. Herng et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133103 (2009) and may be found at
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