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Title: Modelling coupled water and heat transport in a soil–mulch–plant–atmosphere continuum (SMPAC) system
Authors: Wu, CL
Chau, KW 
Huang, JS
Keywords: Transparent polyethylene mulch
SMPAC system
Energy balance equations
Coupled water and heat transport model
Issue Date: Feb-2007
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Applied mathematical modelling, Feb. 2007, v. 31, no. 2, p. 152-169 How to cite?
Journal: Applied mathematical modelling 
Abstract: This paper presents a physically based model coupling water and heat transport in a soil–mulch–plant–atmosphere continuum (SMPAC) system, in which a transparent polyethylene mulch is applied to a winter wheat crop. The purpose of the study is to simulate profiles of soil water content and temperature for different stages of wheat growth. The mass and energy balance equations are constructed to determine upper boundary conditions of governing equations. Energy parameters are empirically formulated and calibrated from three-month field observed data. Resistance parameters in the SMPAC system are calculated. The mass and energy equations are solved by an iterative Newton–Raphson technique and a finite difference method is used to solve the governing equations. Water-consuming experiments are performed within the growing period of wheat. The results show that the model is quite satisfactory, particularly for high soil water content, in simulating the water and temperature profiles during the growth of the winter wheat.
ISSN: 0307-904X
DOI: 10.1016/j.apm.2005.08.018
Rights: Applied Mathematical Modelling © 2005 Elsevier Inc. The journal web site is located at
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