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Title: Aggression and risk-taking as adaptive implementations of fast life history strategy
Authors: Lu, HJ 
Chang, L
Issue Date: Sep-2019
Source: Developmental science, Sept. 2019, v. 22, no. 5, e12827
Abstract: Within the evolutionary life history (LH) framework, aggression and risk-taking are adaptive implementations of a fast LH strategy to adapt to environmental unsafety and unpredictability. Based on a longitudinal sample of 198 Chinese adolescents living in rural areas, half of whom were separated from their parents, this study tested LH hypotheses about aggression and risk-taking in relation to safety constraints in the childhood living environments. The results showed that proxies of environmental unpredictability, including parental separation, were positively associated with aggression and risk-taking and negatively associated with slow LH strategy, which in turn was negatively associated with aggression and risk-taking. Children separated from their parents scored lower on slow LH strategies and higher on aggression and risk-taking. These findings support the evolutionary assumption that human development responds to safety cues through behavioral implementations of LH strategies.
Keywords: Aggression
Child and adolescent development
Environmental unpredictability
Fast and slow life history strategies
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Journal: Developmental science 
ISSN: 1363-755X
EISSN: 1467-7687
DOI: 10.1111/desc.12827
Rights: © 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Lu, HJ, Chang, L. Aggression and risk-taking as adaptive implementations of fast life history strategy. Dev Sci. 2019; 22:e12827, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.
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