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Title: IMI 2021 yearly digest
Authors: Jong, M
Jonas, JB
Wolffsohn, JS
Berntsen, DA
Cho, P 
Clarkson-Townsend, D
Flitcroft, DI
Gifford, KL
Haarman, AEG
Pardue, MT
Richdale, K
Sankaridurg, P
Tedja, MS
Wildsoet, CF
Bailey-Wilson, JE
Guggenheim, JA
Hammond, CJ
Kaprio, J
MacGregor, S
Mackey, DA
Musolf, AM
Klaver, CCW
Verhoeven, VJM
Vitart, V
Smith, EL
Issue Date: Apr-2021
Source: Investigative ophthalmology and visual science, Apr. 2021, v. 62, no.5, 7, p. 1-21
Abstract: Purpose: The International Myopia Institute (IMI) Yearly Digest highlights new research considered to be of importance since the publication of the first series of IMI white papers.
Methods: A literature search was conducted for articles on myopia between 2019 and mid-2020 to inform definitions and classifications, experimental models, genetics, interventions, clinical trials, and clinical management. Conference abstracts from key meetings in the same period were also considered.
Results: One thousand articles on myopia have been published between 2019 and mid-2020. Key advances include the use of the definition of premyopia in studies currently under way to test interventions in myopia, new definitions in the field of pathologic myopia, the role of new pharmacologic treatments in experimental models such as intraocular pressure–lowering latanoprost, a large meta-analysis of refractive error identifying 336 new genetic loci, new clinical interventions such as the defocus incorporated multisegment spectacles and combination therapy with low-dose atropine and orthokeratology (OK), normative standards in refractive error, the ethical dilemma of a placebo control group when myopia control treatments are established, reporting the physical metric of myopia reduction versus a percentage reduction, comparison of the risk of pediatric OK wear with risk of vision impairment in myopia, the justification of preventing myopic and axial length increase versus quality of life, and future vision loss.
Conclusions: Large amounts of research in myopia have been published since the IMI 2019 white papers were released. The yearly digest serves to highlight the latest research and advances in myopia.
Keywords: Myopia
High myopia
Pathologic myopia
Genetics, emmetropization
Contact lenses
Orthokeratology, management guidelines
Clinical trials
Axial length
Publisher: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
Journal: Investigative ophthalmology and visual science 
ISSN: 0146-0404
EISSN: 1552-5783
DOI: 10.1167/iovs.62.5.7
Rights: Copyright 2021 The Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. (
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